Analog inputs: How to wire analog inputs
ACE are available with some number of general analog inputs.
ACE analog input interfaces are available for either 0-5 VDC, 0-10 VDC or 0-20 mA.
|Analog inputs are normally used to connect to sensors outputs. Such sensors measure some physical parameter, such as pressure, temperature, liquid level, position, pH level or other such continuously variable measurement.
The sensors signal output should be connected to a signal input on the analog port and the sensors return or ground reference line must be connected to the PLC ground, next to signal 1 (or otherwise connected to the PLC’s ground).
ACE with current analog input ports (part number ending in ‘c’) should be used for analog current signals between 0 and 20 mA. The two most common type of current signals are 4-20 mA and 0-20 mA. Full range analog signals will convert to a value between 0 and 4095 (12 bits). For 4-20mA inputs, the converted value will be between 820 and 4095. The Scale function in vBuilder can be used to automatically convert the signal value to meaningful data.
For ACE that have a full 8 position port dedicated to analog inputs, the pin next to the sixth input is connected to the PLC’s internal 5 V, through a 10 Ω resistor and a diode. This is provided to power a future analog input simulator. It servers no other purpose and should remain unconnected for application use. Analog input ports that do not occupy the full 8 position port do not have this connection.
The 0-2 0 mA analog inputs have a 100 Ω resistor between the input and ground. For the 0-10 V inputs, its 1 MΩ. For the 0-5 V inputs, its 499 KΩ.
0-5 V and 0-10 V as a 24 V digital input?
|The analogue inputs cannot be used directly as a 24 V digital input!
Howeverif you add a 30 MΩ resistor in serial on the 10 V analog input, once connected, you will get about 7 V for 24 V digital signal
About 0-20 mA analog inputs
Internally, we convert the 0-20/4-20 mA signal to a 0-2 V signal by use of a 100 Ω resistor to ground.
That means that the transistor ground and the transducer ground must be the same ground.
If you want to connect the same signal to multiple devices, it won’t work, unless the PLC is the last device in the chain and every other devices can handle the pass through.
Voltage for 0/4-20 mA inputs
It doesn’t matter what voltage the transducer (sensor) is powered from . Actually 24V is the most common. So long as the current is 4-20mA, everything is good.
Why am I measuring 1.9V on the analogue input?
The analog inputs go through an amplifier, to scale the voltage to the range the A/D converter works with, before being converted by the A/D converter. One feature of an amplifier is an offset voltage that keeps the signal balanced to achieve the desired output range. The connection between the analog input and the amplifier’s offset voltage in between 316 KΩ and 1 MΩ, depending on whether it is a 4-20mA (316K), 0-5V (499K) or 0-10V (1M) input. If nothing is connected to the input, you will see the offset voltage on the 0-5V and 0-10V analog inputs, on all of our PLCs.
This will not affect an actual analog input signal from a transducer. The input resistance is so high that the actual input signal overwhelms this offset voltage.
How to convert current 4-20 mA output from a sensor to 0-10 V voltage using resistor ?
How to change the current of the 0-20 mA input using a simple potentiometer?
You can use a 1 kΩ resistor (R1) and a 1 kΩ potentiometer (R2).
Internally in the ACE, the current is converted to voltage (VM1 = 0-2 V) via a 100 Ω resistor (Rin).
About Ground loops
Don’t share grounds and don’t ground remote sensors
|In the correct schematic above, each sensor has its own controller ground and is only grounded to a controller ground.||In the incorrect schematic above, the sensor is grounded at a remote grounding point as well as to a controller ground|
Signal Interference From Magnetic Induction
The primary sources of these noise problems are Magnetic Induction and Ground Imbalance.
Signal Interference From Ground Imbalance
If a large current is flowing in the ground system, and a sensor is placed in a circuit with a ground that also has a ground loop, then the voltage difference between the two ground points will be added to the signal.